Peace be upon him
(pbuh) was born in Mecca ( Makkah), Arabia, on Monday, 12 Rabi' Al-Awal (2 August A.D. 570). His mother, Aminah, was the daughter
of Wahb Ibn Abdu Manaf of the Zahrah family. His father, 'Abdullah, was the son of Abdul Muttalib. His genealogy has been
traced to the noble house of Ishmael, the son of Prophet Abraham in about the fortieth descend. Muhammad's father died before
Before he was six years old his mother died, and the doubly orphaned Muhammad was put under the charge of his grandfather
Abdul Muttalib who took the most tender care of him. But the old chief died two years afterwards. On his deathbed he confided
to his son Abu Talib the charge of the little orphan.
When Muhammad was twelve years old, he accompanied his uncle Abu Talib on a mercantile journey to Syria, and they proceeded
as far as Busra. The journey lasted for some months. It was at Busra that the Christian monk Bahira met Muhammad. He is related
to have said to Abu Talib: 'Return with this boy and guard him against the hatred of the Jews, for a great career awaits your
After this journey, the youth of Muhammad seems to have been passed uneventfully, but all authorities agree in ascribing
to him such correctness of manners and purity of morals as were rare among the people of Mecca. The fair character and the
honorable bearing of the unobtrusive youth won the approbation of the citizens of Mecca, and b y common consent he received
the title of "Al Ameen," The Faithful.
In his early years, Muhammad was not free from the cares of life. He had to watch the flocks of his uncle, who, like
the rest of the Bani Hashim, had lost the greater part of his wealth.
From youth to manhood he led an almost solitary life. The lawlessness rife among the Meccans, the sudden outbursts
of causeless and bloody quarrels among the tribes frequenting the Fair of Okadh (The Arabian Olympia), and the immorality
and skepticism of the Quraish, naturally caused feelings of pity and sorrow in the heart of the sensitive youth. Such scenes
of social misery and religious degradation were characteristic of a depraved age.
When Muhammad was twenty five years old, he traveled once more to Syria as a factor of a noble and rich Quraishi widow
named Khadijah; and, having proved himself faithful in the commercial interests of that lady, he was soon rewarded with her
hand in marriage. This marriage proved fortunate and singularly happy. Khadijah was much the senior of her husband, but in
spite of the disparity of age between them, the most tender devotion on both sides existed. This marriage gave him the loving
heart of a woman who was ever ready to console him in his despair and to keep alive within him the feeble, flickering flame
of hope when no man believed in him and the world appeared gloomy in his eyes.
Until he reached thirty years of age, Muhammad was almost a stranger to the outside world. Since the death of his grandfather,
authority in Mecca was divided among the ten senators who constituted the governing body of the Arabian Commonwealth. There
was no such accord among them as to ensure the safety of individual rights and property. Though family relations afforded
some degree of protection to citizens, yet strangers were frequently exposed to persecution and oppression. In many cases
they were robbed, not only of their goods, but even of their wives and daughters. At the instigation of the faithful Muhammad,
an old league called the Federation of Fudul, i.e., favors was revived with the object of repressing lawlessness and defending
every weak individual - whether Meccan or stranger, free or slave - against any wrong or oppression to which he might be the
victim within the territories of Mecca.
When Muhammad reached thirty-five years, he settled by his judgment a grave dispute, which threatened to plunge the
whole of Arabia into a fresh series of her oft-recurring wars. In rebuilding the Sacred House of the Ka'ba in A.D. 605, the
question arose as to who should have the honor of raising the black stone, the most holy relic of that House, into its proper
place. Each tribe claimed that honor. The senior citizen advised the disputants to accept for their arbitrator the first man
to enter from a certain gate. The proposal was agreed upon, and the first man who entered the gate was Muhammad "Al-Ameen."
His advice satisfied all the contending parties. He ordered the stone to be placed on a piece of cloth and each tribe to share
the honor of lifting it up by taking hold of a part of the cloth. The stone was thus deposited in its place, and the rebuilding
of the House was completed without further interruption.
It is related that, about this time, a certain Usman, Ibn Huwairith, supported by Byzantine gold, made an attempt to
convert the territory of Hijaz into a Roman dependency, but the attempt failed, chiefly through the instrumentality of Muhammad.
These are nearly all the public acts related by historians in which Muhammad took part in the first fifteen years of
his marriage to Khadijah. As for his private life he is described to have been ever helpful to the needy and the helpless.
His uncle Abu Talib had fallen into distress through his endeavors to maintain the old position of his family. Muhammad, being
rather rich at this time by his alliance with Khadijah, tried to discharge part of the debt of gratitude and obligation which
he owed to his uncle by undertaking the bringing up and education of his son 'Ali. A year later he adopted 'Akil, another
of his uncle's sons.
Khadijah bore Muhammad three sons and four daughters. All the males died in childhood, but in loving 'Ali he found
About this time, Muhammad set a good example of kindness, which created a salutary effect upon his people. His wife
Khadijah had made him a present of young slave named Zaid Ibn Haritha, who had been brought as a captive to Mecca and sold
to Khadijah. When Haritha heard that Muhammad possessed Zaid, he came to Mecca and offered a large sum for his ransom. Whereupon
Muhammd said: "Let Zaid come here, and if he chooses to go with you, take him without ransom; but if it be his choice to stay
with me, why should I not keep him?' Zaid, being brought into Muhammad's presence, declared that he would stay with his master,
who treated him as if he was his only son. Muhammad no sooner heard this than he took Zaid by the hand and led him to the
black stone of Ka'ba, where he publicly adopted him as his son, to which the father acquiesced and returned home well satisfied.
Henceforward Zaid was called the son of Muhammad.
Muhammd was now approaching his fortieth year, and his mind was ever-engaged in profound contemplation and reflection.
Before him lay his country, bleeding and torn by fratricidal wars and intolerable dissension's; his people, sunk in barbarism,
addicted to the observation of rites and superstitions, were, with all their desert virtues, lawless and cruel. His two visits
to Syria had opened to him a scene of unutterable moral and social desolation, rival creeds and sects tearing each other to
pieces, carrying their hatred to the valleys and deserts of Hijaz, and rending the townships of Arabia with their quarrels
For years after his marriage, Muhammad had been accustomed to secluding himself in a cave in Mount Hira, a few miles
from Mecca. To this cave he used to go for prayer and meditation, sometimes alone and sometime with his family. There, he
often spent the whole nights in deep thought and profound communion with the Unseen yet All-Knowing Allah of the Universe.
It was during one of those retirements and in the still hours of the night, when no human sympathy was near, that an angel
came to him to tell him that he was the Messenger of Allah sent to reclaim a fallen people to the knowledge and service of
Renowned compilers of authentic traditions of Islam agree on the following account of the first revelations received
by the Prophet.
Muhammad would seclude himself in the cave of Mount Hira and worship three days and nights. He would, whenever he wished,
return to his family at Mecca and then go back again, taking wihim the necessities of life. Thus he continued to return to
Khadijah from time to time until one day the revelation came down to him and the Angel Gabriel (Jibreel) appeared to him and
said: "Read!" But as Muhammad was illiterate, having never received any instruction in reading or writing, he said to the
angel: "I am not a reader." The angel took a hold of him and squeezed him as much as he could bear, and then said again: "Read!"
Then Prophet said: "I am not a reader." The Angel again seized the Prophet and squeezed him and said: "Read! In the Name of
Your Lord, Who has created (all that exists), has created a man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). Read! And
your Lord is the Most Generous, Who has taught (the writing) by the pen, has taught man that which he knew not." (96:1-4 Quran).
Then the Prophet repeated the words with a trembling heart. He returned to Khadijah from Mount Hira and said: "Wrap
me up! Wrap me up!" She wrapped him in a garment until his fear was dispelled. He told Khadijah what had occurred and that
he was becoming either a soothsayer or one smitten with madness. She replied: "Allah forbid! He will surely not let such a
thing happen, for you speak the truth, you are faithful in trust, you bear the afflictions of the people, you spend in good
works what you gain in trade, you are hospitable and you assist your fellow men. Have you seen anything terrible?" Muhammad
replied: "Yes," and told her what he had seen. Whereupon, Khadijah said: "Rejoice, O dear husband and be cheerful. He is Whose
hands stands Khadijah's life bears witness to the truth of this fact, that you will be the prophet to this people." Then she
arose and went to her cousin Waraqa Ibn Naufal, who was old and blind and who knew the Scriptures of the Jews and Christians,
and is stated to have translated them into Arabic. When she told him of what she had heard, he cried out: "Holy! Holy! Verily,
this is the Namus (The Holy Spirit) who came to Moses. He will be the prophet of his people. Tell him this and bid him to
be brave at heart." When the two men met subsequently in the street, the blind old student of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures
spoke of his faith and trust: "I swear by Him in Who hand Waraqa's life is, Allah has chosen you to be the prophet of this
people. They will call you a liar, they will persecute you, they will banish you, and they will fight against you. Oh, that
I could live to those days. I would fight for these." And he kissed him on the forehead.
The first vision was followed by a considerable period, during which Muhammad suffered much mental depression. The
angel spoke to the grieved heart of hope and trust and of the bright future when he would see the people of the earth crowding
into the one true faith. His destiny was unfolded to him, when, wrapped in profound meditation, melancholy and sad, he felt
himself called by a voice from heaven to arise and preach. O you (Muhammad) enveloped (in garments)! Arise and warn! And your
Lord (Allah) magnify! (74:1-3 Quran) He arose and engaged himself in the work to which he was called. Khadijah was
the first to accept his mission. She was to believe in the revelations, to abandon the idolatry of her people and to join
him in purity of heart and in offering up prayers to Allah the Almighty.
At the beginning of his mission, Muhammad - hereinafter called the Prophet - opened his soul only to those who were
attached to him and tried to free them from the gross practices of their forefathers. After Khadijah, his cousin' Ali was
the next companion. The Prophet used often to go into the desert around Mecca with his wife and young cousin that they might
together offer their heart felt thanks to the Lord of all nations for His manifold blessings. Once they were surprised by
Abu Talib, the father of 'Ali. He said to the Prophet: "O son of my brother, what is this religion you are following?" "It
is the religion of Allah of His Angels, of His Messengers and of our ancestor Abraham," answered the Prophet. "Allah has sent
me to His servants, to direct them towards the truth, and you, O my uncle, are the most worthy of all. It is meet that I should
thus call upon you and it is meet that you should accept the truth and help in spreading it."
Abu Talib replied: "Son of my brother, I cannot abjure the religion of my fathers; but by the Supreme Lord, while I
am alive, none shall dare to injure you." Then turning towards 'Ali, the venerable chief asked what religion was his. Ali
answered: "O father, I believe in Allah and His Prophet and go with him." Abu Talib replied: "Well my son, he will not call
you to anything except what is good, therefore you are free to go with him."
After 'Ali, Muhammad's adopted son Zaid became a convert to the new faith. He was followed by Abu Bakr, a leading member
of the Quraish tribe and an honest, wealthy merchant who enjoyed great consideration among his compatriots. He was but two
years younger than the Prophet. His adoption of the new faith was of great moral effect. Soon after, five notables presented
themselves before the Prophet and accepted Islam. Several converts also came from lower classes of the Arabs to adopt the
For three weary long years, the Prophet labored very quietly to deliver his people from the worship of idols. Polytheism
was deeply rooted among the people. It offered attractions, which the new faith in its purity did not possess. The Quraish
had personal material interests in the old worship, and their prestige was dependent upon its maintenance. The Prophet had
to contend with the idolatrous worship of its followers and to oppose the ruling oligarchy, which governed its destinies.
After three years of constant but quiet struggle, only thirty followers were secured. An important change now occurred
in the relations of the Prophet with the citizens of Mecca. His compatriots had begun to doubt his sanity, thinking him crazy
or possessed by an evil spirit. Hitherto he preached quietly and unobtrusively. He now decided to appeal publicly to the Meccans,
requesting them to abandon their idolatry. For this he arranged a gathering on a neighboring hill and there spoke to them
of their folly in the sight of Allah in worshipping pieces of stone which they called their gods. He invited them to abandon
their old impious worship and adopt the faith of love, truth and purity. He warned them of the fate that had overtaken past
races who had not heeded the preaching of former prophets. But the gathering departed without listening to the warning given
them by the Prophet.
Having thus failed to induce his fellow citizens to listen to him, he turned his attention to the strangers arriving
in the city on commerce or pilgrimage. But the Quraish made attempts to frustrate his efforts. They hastened themselves to
meet the strangers first on different routes, to warn them against holding any communication with the Prophet, whom they represented
as a dangerous magician. When the pilgrims or traders returned to their homes, they carried with them the news of the advent
of the bold preacher who was inviting the Arabs loudly - at the risk of his own life - to abandon the worship of their dear
Now the Prophet and his followers became subject to some persecution and indignity. The hostile Quraish prevented the
Prophet from offering his prayers at the Sacred House of the Ka'ba; they pursued him wherever he went; they covered him and
his disciples with dirt and filth when engaged in their devotions; they scattered thorns in the places which he frequented
for devotion and meditation. Amidst all these trials the Prophet did not waver. He was full of confidence in his mission,
even when on several occasions he was put in imminent danger of losing his life.
At this time Hamza, the youngest son of Abdul Muttalib, adopted Islam. Hamza was a man of distinguished bravery, an
intrepid warrior, generous and true, whose heroism earned for him the title of the "Lion of Allah." He became a devoted adherent
of Islam and everlost his life in the cause.
The Prophet continued preaching to the Arabs in a most gentle and reasonable manner. He called thepeople, so accustomed
to iniquity and wrong doings, to abandon their abominations. In burning words which excited the hearts of his hearers, he
warned them of the punishment which Allah had inflicted upon the ancient tribes of 'Ad and Thamud who had obstinately disobeyed
the teachings of Allah's messengers to them. He adjured them by the wonderful sights of nature, by the noon day brightness,
by the night when it spreads its veil, by the day when it appears in glory to listen to his warning before a similar destruction
befell them. He spoke to them of the Day of Reckoning, when their deeds in this world will be weighed before the Eternal Judge,
when the children who had been buried alive will be asked for what crime they were put to death.
Almighty Allah said: Nay, they wonder that there has come
to them a Warner (Muhammad) from among themselves. So the disbeliveers say: "This is a strange thing! When we are dead and
have become dust (shall we be resurrected)? That is a far return." We know that which the earth takes of them (their dead
bodies), and with Us is a Book preserved (i.e., the Book of Decrees).
Nay, but, they have denied the truth (this Qur'an) when it has come to them, so they are in a confused state (can not
differentiate between right and wrong). Have they not looked at the heaven above them, how We have made it and adorned it,
and there are no rifts in it? And the earth! We have spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and have produced
therein every kind of lovely growth (plants).
An insight and a reminder for every slave turning to Allah (i.e., the one who believes in Allah and performs deeds
of His obedience, and always begs His pardon). And We send down blessed water (rain) from the sky, then we produce therewith
gardens and grain (every kind of harvests that are reaped). And tall date palms, with ranged clusters; a provision for (Allah's)
slaves. And We give life therewith to a dead land. Thus will be the resurrection (of the dead). Denied before them (i.e. these
pagans of Makka who denied you, O Muhammad) the people of Noah, and the dwellers of Rass, and the Thamud, and 'Ad, and Pharaoh,
and the brethren of Lot, and the dwellers of the Wood, and the people of Tubba, everyone of them denied their Messengers,
so My Threat took effect." ( 50: 2-14 Quran)
Almighty Allah also declared: All praises and thanks be
to Allah Who Alone created the heavens and the earth, and originated the darkness and the light, yet those who disbelieve
hold others as equal with their Lord. He it is Who has created you from clay, and then has decreed a stated term (for you
to die). And there is with Him another determined term (for you to be resurrected), yet you doubt (in the Resurrection).
And He is Allah (to be worshipped Alone) in the heavens and on the earth, He knows what you conceal and what you reveal,
and He knows what you earn (good or bad). And never an Ayah (sign) comes to them from the Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons,
signs, revelations, etc.) of their Lord, but that they have been turning away from it.
Indeed, they rejected the truth (The Qur'an and Muhammad) when it came to them, but there will come to them the news
of that (the torment) which they used to mock at. Have they not seen how many a generation before them We have destroyed whom
We had established on the earth such as We have not established you? And We poured out on them rain from the sky in abundance,
and made the rivers flow under them. Yet We destroyed them for their sins, and created after them other generations." ( 6:1-6
As the number of believers increased and the cause of the Prophet was strengthened by the conversions of many powerful
citizens, the Prophet's preaching alarmed the Quraish. Their power and prestige were at stake. They were the custodians of
the idols, which the Prophet had threatened to destroy; they were the ministers of the worship, which he denounced; in fact
their existence and living wholly depended upon the maintenance of the old institutions. The Prophet taught that in the sight
of his Lord all human were equal, the only distinction recognized among them being the weight of their piety.
Allah the Exalted said: O mankind! We have created
you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable
of you in the Sight of Allah is that believer who has At Taqwa (one of the Muttaqun, pious and righteous persons who fear
Allah much, abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden), and love Allah much (perform all kinds
of good deeds which He has ordained. Verily! Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware." ( 49:13 Quran).
The Quraish would have none of this leveling of distinctions, as it reflected upon their long inherited privileges.
Accordingly, they organized a system of persecution in order to suppress the movement before it became firmly established.
They decided that each family should take upon itself the task of stamping out the new faith on the spot. Each household tortured
its own members or adherents or slaves who were supposed to have connected themselves with the new religion. With the exception
of the Prophet, who was protected by Abu Talib and his kinsmen, and Abu Bakr, and a few others who were either distinguished
by their rank or possessed some influence among the Quraish, all other converts were subjected to different sorts of torture.
Some of them were thrown into prison, starved, and then flogged. The hill of Ramada and the place called Bata thus became
scenes of cruel torture.
One day the Quraish tried to induce the Prophet to discontinue his teachings of the new religion, which had sown discord
among their people. 'Utba Ibn Rabi'a, was delegated to see the Prophet and speak to him. 'Utba said: "O son of my brother,
you are distinguished by your qualities; yet you have sown discord among our people and cast dissension in our families; you
denounced our gods and goddesses and you charge our ancestors with impiety. Now we are come to make a proposition to you,
and I ask you to think well before you reject it." "I am listening to you, O father of Walid," said the Prophet. "O son of
my brother, if by this affair you intend to acquire riches, honors, and dignity, we are willing to collect for you a fortune
larger than is possessed by any one of us; we shall make you our chief and will do nothing without you. If you desire dominion,
we shall make you our king; and if the demon which possesses you cannot be subdued, we will bring you doctors and give them
riches until they cure you." When 'Utba had finished his discourse, the Prophet said: "Now listen to me, O father of Walid."
"I listen." He replied. The Prophet, recited to him the first thirteen verses of Surah Fussilat, which maybe interpreted as
the Name of Allah The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful.
Ha Mim (These letters are one of the miracles of the Quran, and none but Allah Alone knows their meanings). A revelation
from Allah the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. A Book whereof the Verses are explained in detail; - a Quran in Arabic
for people who know. Giving glad tidings (of Paradise to the one who believes in the Oneness of Allah, Islamic Monotheism)
and fears Allah much (abstains from all kinds of sins and evil deeds) and loves Allah much (performing all kinds of good deeds
which He has ordained), and warning (of punishment in the Hellfire to be the one who disbelieves in the Oneness of Allah),
but most of them turn away, so they listen not.
And they say: "Our hearts are under coverings (screened) from that to which you invite us, and in our ears is deafness,
and between us and you is a screen, so work you (on your way); verily we are working (on our way).
Say (O Muhammad): "I am only a human being like you. It is inspired in me that your Ilah (God) is One Ilah (God - Allah),
therefore take the Straight Path to Him (with true Faith - Islamic Monotheism) and obedience to Him, and seek forgiveness
of Him. And woe to Al-Mushrikeen; (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, and disbeliveers in the Oneness of Allah, etc, those who
worship others along with or set up rivals or partners to Allah etc.) Those who give not the Zakat and they are disbeliveers
in the Hereafter. Truly, those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad - Islamic Monotheism) and
do righteous good deeds for them will be an endless reward that will never stop (Paradise).
Say (O Muhammad): "Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days and you set up rivals (in worship)
with Him? That is the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists).
He placed therein (the earth) firm mountains from above it, and He blessed it, and measured therein its sustenance
(for its dwellers) in four Days equal (all these four days were equal in the length of time), for all those who ask (about
its creation). Then He Istawa (rose over) towards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: "Come both
of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come, willingly." Then He completed and finished from their creation
as seven heavens in two days and he made in each heaven with lamps (stars) to b e an adornment as well as to guard (from the
devils by using them as missiles against the devils). Such is the Decree of Him the All Mighty, The All Knower.
But if they turn away, then say (O Muhammad): "I have warned you of a Sa'iqa (a destruction awful cry, torment, hit,
a thunder bolt) like the Sa'iqa which overtook 'Ad and Thamud (people)." ( 41:1-13 Quran).
When the Prophet had finished his recitation, he said to 'Utba: "This is my reply to your proposition; now take what
course you find best."
Persecution by the Quraish grew fiercer every day and the sufferings of the Prophet's disciples became unbearable.
He had heard of the righteousness, tolerance, and hospitality of the neighboring Christian king of Abyssinia. He recommended
such of his companions who were without protection to seek refuge in the kingdom of that pious king, Al Najashi (Negus). Some
fifteen of the unprotected adherents of Islam promptly availed themselves of the advice and sailed to Abyssinia. Here they
met with a very kind reception from the Negus. This is called the first hijrah (migration) in the history of Islam and occurred
in the fifth year of the Prophet Muhammad's mission, A.D. 615. These emigrants were soon followed by many of their fellow
sufferers, until the number reached eighty-three men and eighteen women.
The hostile Quraish, furious at the escape of their victims, sent deputes to the king of Abyssinia to request him to
deliver up the refugees, that they might be put to death for adjuring their old religion and embracing a new one. The king
summoned the poor fugitives and inquired of them what was the religion, which they had adopted in preference to their old
faith. Ja'far, son of Abu Talib and brother of 'Ali, acted as spokesman for the exiles. He spoke thus: "O king, we were plunged
in the depth of ignorance and barbarism, we adored idols, we lived in unchastity, and we ate dead bodies, and we spoke abomination,
we disregarded every feeling of humanity and sense of duty towards our neighbors, and we knew no law but that of the strong,
when Allah raised among us a man, of whose birth, truthfulness, honesty, and purity we were aware. He called us to profess
the Unity of Allah and taught us to associate nothing with Him; he forbade us the worship of idols and enjoined us to speak
the truth, to be faithful to our trusts, to be merciful, and to regard the rights of neighbors; he forbade us to speak evil
of the worship of Allah and not to return to the worship of idols of woos and stone and to abstain from evil, to offer prayers,
to give alms, to observe the fast. We have believed in him, we have accepted his teachings and his injunctions to worship
Allah alone and to associate nothing with Him. Hence our people have persecuted us, trying to make us forego the worship of
Allah and return to the worship of idols of wood and stone and other abominations. They have tortured us and injured us until,
finding no safety among them, we have come to your kingdom trusting you will give us protection against their persecution."
After hearing the above speech, the hospitable king ordered the deputies to return to their people in safety and not
to interfere with their fugitives. Thus the emigrants passed the period of exile in peace and comfort.
While the followers of the Prophet sought safety in foreign lands against the persecution of their people, he continued
his warnings to the Quraish more strenuously than ever. Again they came to him with offers of riches and honor, which he firmly
and utterly refused. But they mocked at him and urged him for miracles to prove his mission. He used to answer: "Allah has
not sent me to work wonders; He has sent me to preach to you."
Thus disclaiming all power of wonder working, the Prophet ever rested the truth of his divine mission upon
his wise teachings. He addressed himself to the inner consciousness of man, to his common sense and to his own better judgement. Say (O Muhammad): "I am only a human being like you. It is inspired in me that
your Ilah (God) is One Ilah (God- Allah), therefore take the Straight Path to Him (with true Faith - Islamic Monotheism) and
obedience to Him and seek forgiveness of Him. And woe to Al Mushrikeen; (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, and disbeliveers
in the Oneness of Allah etc., those who worship others along with Allah or set up rivals or partners to Allah etc. ( 41:6
Despite all the exhortation of the Prophet, the Quraish persisted in asking him for a sign. They insisted that unless
some sign be sent down to him from his Lord, they would not believe. The disbeliveers used to ask: "Why has Muhammad not been
sent with miracles like previous prophets?" T he Prophet replied: "Because miracles had proved inadequate to convince. Noah
was sent with signs, and with what effect? Where was the lost tribe of Thamud? They had refused to receive the preaching of
the Prophet Salih, unless he showed them a sign and caused the rock to bring forth a living camel. He did what they asked.
In scorn they cut the camel's feet and then daring the prophet to fulfill his threats of judgment, were found dead in their
beds the next morning, stricken by the angel of the Lord."
There are some seventeen places in the Quran, in which the Prophet Muhammad is challenged to work a sign, and he answered
them all to the same or similar effect: Allah has the power of working miracles, and has not been believed; there were greater
miracles in nature than any which could be wrought outside of it; and the Quran itself was a great, everlasting miracle. The
Quran, the Prophet used to assert to the disbeliveers, is a book of blessings which is a warning for the whole world; it is
a complete guidance and explains everything necessary; it is a reminder of what is imprinted on human nature and is free from
every discrepancy and from error and falsehood. It is a book of true guidance and a light to all.
As to the sacred idols, so much honored and esteemed by the pagan Arabs, the Prophet openly recited: They are but names
which you have named - you and your fathers - for which Allah has sent down no authority. ( 53:23 Quran)
When the Prophet thus spoke reproachfully of the sacred gods of the Quraish, the latter redoubled their persecution.
But the Prophet, nevertheless, continued his preaching undaunted but the hostility of his enemies or by their bitter persecution
of him. And despite all opposition and increased persecution, the new faith gained ground. The national fair at Okadh near
Mecca attracted many desert Bedouins and trading citizen of distant towns. These listened to the teachings of the Prophet,
to his admonitions, and to his denunciations of their sacred idols and of their superstitions. They carried back all that
they had heard to their distant homes, and thus the advent of the Prophet was made know to almost all parts of the peninsula.
The Meccans, however, were more than ever furious at the Prophet's increasing preaching against their religion. They
asked his uncle Abu Talib to stop him, but he could not do anything. At , as the Prophet persisted in his ardent denunciations
against their ungodliness and impiety, they turned him out from the Ka'ba where he used to sit and preach, and subsequently
went in a body to Abu Talib. They urged the venerable chief to prevent his nephew from abusing their gods any longer or uttering
any ill words against their ancestors. They warned Abu Talib that if he would not do that, he would be excluded from the communion
of his people and driven to side with Muhammad; the matter would then be settled by fight until one of the two parties were
Abu Talib neither wished to separate himself from his people, nor forsake his nephew for the idolaters to revenge themselves
upon. He spoke to the Prophet very softly and begged him to abandon his affair. To this suggestion the Prophet firmly replied:
"O my uncle, if they placed the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left hand to cause me to renounce my task, verily
I would not desist therefrom until Allah made manifest His cause or I perished in the attempt." The Prophet, overcome by the
thought that his uncle and protector was willing to desert him, turned to depart. But Abu Talib called him loudly to come
back, and he came. "Say whatever you please; for by the Lord I shall not desert you ever."
The Quraish again attempted in vain to cause Abu Talib to abandon his nephew. The venerable chief declared his intention
to protect his nephew against any menace or violence. He appealed to the sense of honor of the two families of the Bani Hashim
and the Bani Muttalib, both families being kinsmen of the Prophet, to protect their member from falling a victim to the hatred
of rival parties. All the members of the two families nobly responded to the appeal of Abu Talib except Abu Lahab, one of
the Prophet's uncles, who took part with the persecutors.
During this period, 'Umar Al-Khattab adopted Islam. In him the new faith gained a valuable adherent and an important
factor in the future development and propagation of Islam. Hitherto he had been a violent opposer of the Prophet and a bitter
enemy of Islam. His conversion is said to have been worked by the miraculous effect on his mind of a Surah of the Quran which
his sister was reading in her house, where he had gone with the intention of killing her for adopting Islam. Thus the party
of the Prophet had been strengthened by the conversation by his uncle Hamza, a man of great valor and merit; and of Abu Bakr
and 'Umar, both men of great energy and reputation. The Muslims now ventured to perform their devotions in public.